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发布者:李锦雄    发布时间:2009/10/31 3:40:00    浏览次数:1959
                           名 篇 名 著 欣 赏
一、  科普文选
                    (一)Men in Space
   Scientists did not plan to send a man into space immediately. They lacked (缺乏) knowledge about conditions in space. So their first intention was to send satellites without men into space. There satellites were going to travel round our Earth in a fixed orbit(轨道) like the moon. They were packed with instruments measuring conditions in space. These instruments could send messages back to Earth. By means of them we could learn a lot about space before men went there. No lives should be sacrifice(牺牲) in the search for knowledge.
   4th October, 1957, was a day of excitement everywhere in the world. This was the Russians sent their famous Sputnik I into space. It became the first man-made satellite. Astronomers everywhere saw it and heard it, racing round and round the Earth. It was very small and quite weak. But the wonderful little ball, only twenty inches wide ,was man’s first real success outside the atmosphere. The “bleep-bleep” calls which it sent from space showed that men were nearly ready to enter space themselves.
   Soon afterwards Sputnik 2 followed its brother into space.
   It was five times bigger than the first satellite, carrying more instruments for studying space. It also carried a dog.
   The dog, Laika, was a leader in space. She lay quietly in the Sputnik 2 , with instruments tied to every part of her body. By means of these instruments scientists received information about her health in space. Every movement from the tip of her nose to her tail was watched. It was a pity that Laika had to be sacrificed in space. Scientists did not know how to bring satellites safely back to Earth. Laika died in the Sputnik 2. But her short life in space proved that animals could live quite comfortably in spaceship.
   Many other Russian and American satellites followed the Sputniks into space. Each added something to our knowledge. For more than three years scientists worked to make a satellite which could carry men into space. Yet there were people who still believed that men could never live in space. There were, in fact, many difficulties.
   There was , of course, the difficulty that men cannot live without oxygen. We must breathe air or die. Carrying air is easier than it used to be. Explorers(探索者) carry oxygen in special containers when they travel in high mountains or under water. They can carry packs of air on their backs. It is easy carrying air for short journeys. They may be travelling for months or years. During these journeys they will either make fresh air or they will use the same air over and over again. For shorter journeys they can carry enough air packed in the spaceship.
Another difficulty is that everything becomes weightless in space. As a spaceship “falls” through space everything in the ship “falls” with it. Being weightless is uncomfortable at first.
Weightless men cannot stand firmly on the floor. They must pull themselves down into their seats. They must tie themselves into their beds. Everything floats(漂浮) around the spaceship unless
 
 
it is tied down. Eating and drinking are difficult because everything must be pushed into the mouth. Nothing can be put on a table and left there. You cannot even put a pin(大头针) down. A floating pin may damage one of the instrument. Everything must be held firm or the spaceship will become uncomfortable and dangerous. Men in spaceships soon learn to be careful.
Some scientists thought that men could never learn to be weightless. They thought they would become ill. That is one reason why animals were sent first into space. Laika, the dog, and some mice and a monkey proved to scientists that living animals do not suffer many ill-effects in space. A long journey does have some effect, but we do not know of anyone suffering seriously.
Scientists were also afraid of the serious danger of meteorites(陨星) in space. They are always trying to improve the protection of spaceships against meteorites. Luckily no one has been hurt by a meteorite yet.
But the most dangerous moments for a spaceman are when he is leaving Earth or returning to Earth. Leaving the Earth brings the shock of sudden speed. The spaceship dashing upwards reaches a speed of 25000 m.p.h. after a few minutes. Gong fast is not dangerous in space. But it is very dangerous to increase speed so quickly. We can suffer seriously from this increasing speed, which is called acceleration(加速度).
As a spaceship goes faster and faster the men inside are pushed back heavily into their seats. It is like a great weight pressing them down. They cannot move and it is painful to breathe. Their blood rushes to their heads and there is a painful roar(轰鸣) in their ears. Sometimes everything seems to grow dark and go black. Some men become ill under the weight of acceleration. But other men bear a lot of it. All spacemen must be able to bear acceleration without losing control. This is one reason for their careful training. No one in space has yet been killed by acceleration.
Returning to earth brings other dangers. Laika had to die in space because scientists in 1958 did not know how to bring the Sputnik safely home. Now the return is made frequently and it seems easy.
The first rockets and satellites returning to earth were burned up in our atmosphere. How could the scientists make them slow down smoothly ? How could they bring them home safely ?
If the spacemen do not land smoothly they can suffer worse pain than in acceleration. If they come too fast they will hit the Earth and destroyed.
Small rockets are carried by the spaceships. When they return to Earth these are fired backwards. The force of these rockets slows down the spaceship. The spaceship is moving more slowly as it comes down. Then parachutes(降落伞) open out of the tail of the spaceship. Three or four parachutes filling with air support the falling spaceship. It goes slower and slower until it floats gently down to Earth. Usually it lands softly on the sea. There it can easily be recovered.
The spaceship must come down exactly the right path to Earth. If it follows a steep(陡峭) slope(倾斜) it may fall too fast. The parachutes and rockets cannot stop its fall. It many burn up in the atmosphere or it many be destroyed on Earth. And if the path of the spaceship is not steep enough there is another danger. Then it will slip away into space again. Perhaps it will never be recovered.
The spacemen must come home along the exact path between these dangers. Scientists work hard to find the eight path for each returning spaceship. Many satellites are sent into space every year to collect facts needed by the scientists. Satellites from many countries circle the Earth, sending messages about the conditions in space.
The first American satellites were called “ explorer” . Explorer I carried instruments to find out
 
 
the number of meteorites and the heat and cold of space. Many more Explorer satellites followed the first. A bigger satellites was called Vanguard.
The first of these Vanguards was fired into space in March, 1958. It is still in orbit, where it will remain for hundreds of years. It received power straight from the sun and will be sending messages to our descendants(后代).
Dozens of new satellites are sent into orbit every year. There are many different shapes and sizes. Hundreds of strange things are now circling the Earth. Man’s knowledge of space was increasing fast by 1960. There was a lot of excited interest everywhere in the world. We were learning to control the return of spaceship everyone knew that the great day was coming. Soon the fist man was going to be sent into space.
 
(二)Animal World
1.  The Lion
         The lion is called the “King of beasts”. He is fierce(凶狠) and bold(胆大), very noble-looking, and of great strength.
        The home of the largest lions is far away in the wild mountains and great plains(平原) of Africa.
    He is seldom seen going out during the day, but when the sun is going down, the lion leaves his home and goes forth to hunt. He steals along softly, and makes no sound as he walks. When all is still , his terrible voice is heard. In the silence of the night it sounds like thunder(雷声).
If he is near a village, the dogs bark(叫), and the horses, oxen ,and camels rush about in terror, for they know the voice of lion. The men light fires all around, and wave lighted fire to frighten him away.
But he cares very little. He goes on to the place where the cattle are kept, and in a few minutes a horse or a cow falls beneath his terrible paw.
Although the lion seldom leaves his home before evening, yet, when he is hungry, he many even in the day-time be found wandering over the plains. There large herds of wild asses and antelopes (驴子和羚羊) go trooping along. They scent(嗅觉) the lion at a great distance ;and when they hear his voice, they run away over the desert like the wind.
In their terror, some of them come near the place where the lion lies hid. Then he waited , his eyes glaring , and with only one bound he springs on his pray(猎物).
The lion has a long shaggy mane (鬃毛), and his skin is of dull yellow color. The lioness is much smaller than the lion, and she has no mane. She makes her home in the deepest part of the forest, and there she lives with her young ones.
2.Tigers
Tigers are found in India and most of the countries of Southeast Asia. They live in forests and grassy plains, where there are plenty of other animals for them to hunt for food. If you see a tiger in zoo, you may think its coat is brightly colored and easily seen, but in the jungles(大丛林) and grassland where it lives, a tiger is hard to see. The sunlight , shining through leaves and branches, makes patches of light and shadow(影子). A tiger’s golden colored coat, with its dark stripes(条纹), mixes so well into these patches of sunlight and shadow that it is not easily seen. When it walks through the long forest grass, it is also hard to see, for its hair is the same color as the blades(草片) of yellowish grass and patches of deep shadow.
This camouflages(伪装) ,as we call it , is very important, because tigers are hunters and catch other animals for their food. If the animals could see a tiger coming, they would quickly escape. It
 
 
has long strong, sharp teeth which it uses for seizing and eating the animals it catches. A tiger’s main food is deer, wild pigs, monkeys and other small animals, but it will also kill cows. A tiger is also very strong and if it kills a deer or a cow, it will often drag the dead animal several hundred yards to the shelter(避难处) of some bushes , where it can eat its meal in peace.
Tigers usually hunt and eat at night, and during the daytime they lie resting , hidden in the long grass. Tigers do not like great heat and when it is very hot they find a resting place by a river or in some wet ground.
A tiger watches carefully for danger as it drinks at the river. It is an excellent swimmer and can cross fast-flowing rivers easily. it will dive into the river to escape from its enemies, or other dangers, such as forest fires. The tiger ,which is five or six feet long when fully grown, is a big relative of the cats which we keep in our homes as pets(宠物). When a tiger is attacked, it uses its teeth and claws to defend itself, but, unlike our cats, it is not a very good climber.
3.The Panda
The panda’s face looks like a cat’s, but its fat body and short tail is like a bear’s. So people call this animal Xiong-mao(bear-cat). Scientists call it Mao-xiong(cat-bear). The panda has a very mild temperament(性情) and is very lovable. Everybody likes it very much.
The panda is an animal particular to China. The northeastern part of China’s Sichuan Province and southern part of Gansu Provice are its native home. Panda like most to climb trees. They live in the dense(茂密) forest of the high mountains there, eating bamboo shoots and drinking spring water(泉水).
Before liberation pandas were killed at will. Some people used panda fur to sleep on or to make overcoats ,and ate the eat. So pandas, quite few in the beginning , became fewer and fewer.
After liberation the people’s government made a law protecting rare animals. In thick forests where pandas live, panda is not allowed, nor is unplanned tree falling. Special people are sent there to do panda protection work. Because people show concern for the panda and do not harm it, pandas have become bold(勇敢). They often go to drink at the riverside at the foot of a mountain and not afraid of seeing people. After drinking they walk slowly back to their mountains. Some pandas go where the villagers work, drink water and eat their food. After the villagers feed them up they send them back. Some pandas also go to places where lumbermen(伐木工) live in the evening and squat(蹲)beside them to warm themselves by the fire.
4.Dolphins
Dolphins(海豚) live their whole lives in water. But they are not fish. They are mammals(哺乳动物) that live in water.
That’s why a dolphin comes to the top of the water so often. It has to breathe air. A dolphin’s nose isn’t easy to see. It’s just a tiny hole on top of the dolphin’s head. This hole is called a blowhole.
A dolphin comes up every half minute or so to breathe. It opens its blowhole and takes in air. Then it closes the blowhole tight and dives under he water again. But a dolphin can stay under the water for six or seven minutes if it has to. It holds its breath.
A dolphin hears with two ears. It hears all sorts of small noises under water . It hears small stones rolling. It can hear the sound fish and other dolphins make.
A dolphin’s ears may be very small, but its mouth is very big. It holds almost one hundred teeth. These teeth are al the same shape and size. They are used for catching food, but not for chewing it. A dolphin opens its big mouth and seized a fish firmly between its two rows of teeth. Then it swallows the fish whole.
 
A dolphin swims very fast. It is said that a dolphin swims faster than anything else in the water. So engineers are studying its skin and shapes. They are learning ways to make boats go faster through the water.
It is well known that dolphins are very smart. Some scientists say they are smarter than dogs. Others say they are smarter than apes(猿).
二、  精彩短篇
                     After Twenty Years
                                            O. Henry
  The policeman on the beat moved up the main street. The streets were nearly empty. The time was barely 10:00 at night. Chilly gusts of wind with a taste of rain in them had chased people indoors.
  Trying doors as he went, he twirled his club(棍) with many artful movements. He turned now and then to cast his watchful eye down the quiet street. The officer made a fine picture of a guardian of the peace. The vicinity(附近) was one that kept early hours. Now and then you might see the lights of an all-night lunch counter. But most of the doors belonged to stores that had long since been closed.
  Midway on a certain block the policeman suddenly slowed his walk . in the doorway of a darkened hardware store a man leaned. As the policeman walked up to him, the man spoke up quickly.
  “ It’s all right, Officer,” he said. “ I’m just waiting for a friend. It’s an appointment made twenty years ago. Sounds a little funny to you, doesn’t it ? well, I’ll explain if you’d like to make certain it’s all straight. About that long ago there used to be a restaurant where this store stands-‘Big Joe’ Brady’s restaurant.”
  “ Until five years ago,” said the policeman . “ It was torn down then.”
  The man in the doorway struck a match and checked his watch. The light showed a pale, square-jawed face with keen eyes , and a little white scar(伤疤) near his right eyebrow. His scarf-pin was a large diamond, oddly(=not naturally)set.
  “Twenty years ago tonight,” said the man. “ I had dinner here at ‘Big Joe’ Brady’s with Jimmy Wells. He was my best friend , and the finest fellow in the world. He and I were raised here in New York, just like two brothers, together. I was eighteen and Jimmy was twenty. The next morning, i was to start for the West to make my fortune. You couldn‘t have dragged Jimmy out of New York. He thought it was the only place on earth. Well , we agreed that night that we would meet here again exactly twenty years from that date and time, no matter what. We figured that in twenty years each of us ought to have our fortunes made, whatever they were going to be.”
  “ It sounds pretty interesting,” said the policeman. “ Rather a long time between meets, though, it seems to me. Haven’t you heard from your friends since you left?”
  “ Well, yes, for a time we wrote,” said the other. “ But after a year or two we lost track of each other. You see, the West is a pretty big place. I kept hustling(硬挤) around over it pretty lively. But I know Jimmy will meet me here if he’s alive, for he always was the truest friend in the world. He’ll never forget. I came a thousand miles to stand in this door tonight. It’s worth it if my old partner turns up.”
  The waiting man again pulled out his handsome watch. The case was set with diamonds.
 “ Three minutes to ten,” he announced. “ It was exactly ten o’clock when we parted here at the restaurant door.”
 
 “ Did pretty well out West, didn’t you?” asked the policeman.
 “ You bet ! I hope Jimmy has done half as well. He was a kind of plodder(=a hard person), though, as good fellow as he was. I’ve had to compete with some of the sharpest wits going to get my pile. A man gets in a rut in New York. It takes the West to put a razor-edge(剃刀边)on him.”
 The policeman twirled his club and took a step or two.
 “ I’ll be on my way. Hope your friend comes around all right. Going to call time on him sharp ?”
   “ I should say not!” said the other. “ I’ll give him half an hour at least. If Jimmy is alive on earth he’ll be here by that time. So long, Officer.”
  “Good night, sir,” said the policeman . He passed on along his beat, trying doors as he went.
   There was now a fine, cold drizzle falling. The wind had risen from its uncertain puffs(一阵) into a steady blow. The few people moved on that street hurried along with coat collars turned high and pocketed hands. And in the door of the hardware store the man who had come a thousand miles to fill an appointment watched and waited.
   About twenty minutes he waited . Then a tall man fin a long overcoat, with collar turned up to his ears, hurried across from the opposite side of the street. He went directly to the waiting man.
   “Is that , Bob?” he asked , doubt fully.
   “Is that you, Jimmy Wells?” cried the man in the door.
 “ Bless my heart!” exclaimed the new arrival, grasping both the other’s hands with his own. “It’s Bob, sure as fate. I was certain I’d find you here if you were still alive. Well, well, well! Twenty years is a long time. The old restaurant’s gone, Bob; I wish it had lasted , so we could have had another dinner there. How has the West treated you, old man?”
“ Bully; it has given me everything I asked it for. You’re changed lots, Jimmy. I never thought you were so tall by two or three inches.”
“ Oh, I grew a bit after I was twenty.”
“Doing well in New York, Jimmy?”
“Moderately(适度).I have a position in one of the city departments. Come on, Bob; we’ll go around to a place I know of and have a good long talk about old times.”
The two men started up the street, arm in arm. The man from the West was beginning to outline the history of his career. The other, submerged(淹没) in his overcoat, listened with interest.
At the corner stood a drugstore, brilliant with electric light. When they came into this glare each of them turned simultaneously(同时发声) to gaze upon the other’s face.
The man from the West stopped suddenly and released his arm.
 “ You’re not Jimmy Wells,” he snapped. “Twenty years is a long time, but not long enough to change the shape of a man’s nose.”
“It sometimes changes a good man into a bad one,” said the tall man.” You’ve been under arrest for ten minutes, ‘Silky’ Bob. Chicago thinks you may have dropped over our way and wires us she wants to have a chat with you. Going quietly, are you? That’s sensible. Now, before we go to the station, here’s a note I was asked to hand to you. You may read it here at the window. It’s from Patrolman Wells.”
The man from the West unfolded the little piece of paper handed to him. His hand was steady when he began to read, but it trembled a little by the time he had finish. The note was rather short.
Bob :
I was at the appointed place on time. When you struck the match to check the time, I saw your face. It was the face of the man wanted in Chicago. Somehow I couldn’t do it myself. I went around and got a plainclothes man to do the job.
                                                       Jimmy
三、  影视传真
Selected from “Saving Private Ryan(拯救大兵雷恩)”
Scene 4  The Bridge
    (One sunny afternoon , the team is crossing an open grassland, suddenly a German tank appears in sight. When the firing ends, they find Ryan unexpectedly.)
Henderson: So what are you guys(大家) all doing ?
Miller : We are here for him, Ryan.
Ryan : Me , sir ?
Miller: James Francis Ryan of Iowa ?
Ryan: Yes sir, Peyton Iowa, that’s correct. What is this about ?
Miller: Your brothers were killed in combat(战役).
Ryan : Which, which one ?
Miller : All of them.
Ryan : How could ? On the level(=really) ?
Miller : Yeah, I’m afraid so. You might want to take some time wiht this, if there is some place you want to and ...
Soldier1: What’s this all about ?
Soldier2 : Ryan lost his brothers.
Soldier1 : Which one ?
Soldier2 : All of them.
Ryan: You came all the way out here to tell me that ?
Miller : You’re going home. Our orders are to bring you back.
Ryan : Bring me back ?
Miller: Corporal Henderson. Though we’re going to make you more shorthanded, but orders are orders, any communication when you’re going to be relieved up (救援)here ?
Henderson: Sir, there’s no way to tell, and we’ve no idea what’s happening south of us.
Ryan : I have my orders too, sir. They don’t include me abandoning(=give up) my post.
Miller : I understand that but this changes things.
Ryan : I don’t see how it does , sir.
Miller : The chief of staff for the United States army, he says it does.
Henderson: Sir, our orders are to hold this bridge at all costs. Our planes in the 82nd have taken out every bridge across Murderrevelty(梅德海) with the exception of two. One on Veron and this one here. If we let the Germans take them we’re gonna loose our foothold out of this place.
Miller : Private, if your outfit(=organization) wants to stay, that’s one thing, but your part is over here.
Ryan : Sir , I can’t leave until at least reinforcements(支援)...
Miller : You’ve got three minutes to gather your gear(行装).
Ryan: So what about them? I mean there’s barely, hardly...
Soldier: Hey, asshole(傻瓜), two of our guys already died for trying to find you , all right?
Ryan: Sir?
Miller : That’s right.
Ryan: What were their names ?
Soldier: Owen Waid and Andrian Capartzo.
Ryan: Waid and...
 
Soldier: Capartzo.
Ryan: It doesn’t make any sense. It doesn’t make any sense, sir. Why, why me, why do I deserve(凭什么) to go? Why not any of these guys? They all fought just as hard as me.
Miller : Is that what they’re supposed to tell your mother, when they send her another folded American flag ?
Ryan: Tell her when you found me, I was here and I was with the only brothers that I have left. And there is no way I was going to desert(逃跑) them. I think she’ll understand that. There’s no way I’m leaving this bridge.
四、  名篇文萃
(一)   The Secretary General’s Video Message
                for the New Millennium
                                                ---December 31, 1999
...
More than ever before in human history, we all share a common destiny. We can master it only if we face it together.
And that , my friends, is why we have the United Nations.
Through the United Nations, we are working together to preserve peace; to outlaw weapons that kill and maim indiscriminately; to bring mass murderers and war criminals to justice.
Through the United Nations, we are working together to defeat AIDS and other epidemics; to control climate change; to make clean air and water available to everyone.
Through the United Nations, we are working together to ensure that the global market benefits all of us, freeing the poor to lift themselves out of poverty. Through the United Nations, we are working together to make human rights a reality for everyone, to give all human beings real choices in life, and a real say in decisions that affect their lives.
...
                  联合国秘书长新千年全球电视献辞
                                         ――---1999年12月31日
   ......
   在人类历史上,我们从未像现在这样休戚与共。 只有共同面对,我们才能掌握自己的命运。
   朋友们, 这就是成立联合国的原因。
   通过联合国,我们共同努力维护和平,禁用滥杀滥伤的武器,把大屠杀的凶手和战争犯绳之以法。
   通过联合国,我们共同努力战胜艾滋病和其他流行病,控制气候变化,让每个人都能享受到洁净的空气和饮水。通过联合国,我们共同努力确保全球市场让人人获益,使穷人摆脱贫困。
   通过联合国, 我们共同努力让每个人都能切实享受人权,使人人都真正作出生活的选择,对影响其生活的决定获得真正的发言权。
   ......
                   (二) Tony Blair’s Tribute to Diana
                                                  ---Tony Blair
                 Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels,
                 and have not love,
                
                 I am become as sounding brass,
                 or a tinkling cymbal.
 
And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries.
and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains,
and have not love,
I am nothing.
 
               And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to
               be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing.
 
          Love suffereth long, and is kind;
          love envieth not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up,
          doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked,
          thinketh no evil; rejoiceth not in iniquity,
              but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all things , believeth all things , hopeth all things,
          endureth all things,
 
Love never faileth:
but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether
there be tongue, they shall cease ; whether there be knowledge,
it shall vanish sway.
 
For we know in part, and we prophesy in part.
 
But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done
away
 
When I was a child, I speak as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a
child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things.
 
For now we see through a glass, darkly,
but then face to face: now I know in part;
but then shall I know even as also I am known.
 
And now abideth faith, hope, love, these three;
but the greatest of these if love.
                       
            献给戴妃的祭词
                                    ---托尼.布莱尔
纵然我是天使,是男子汉,巧舌如簧,
没有爱,也如叮当鸣响的铜钹,
毫无生机。
 
 
纵然我是预知万事万物的神明,
能够移山填海,
没有爱,我将一无用处。‘
纵然以我的血肉,施舍尽天下穷苦,
没有了爱,我将毫无收获。
 
深情而绵长的爱啊!
不忌不妒,不张扬;不自满自溢,恰到好处;
不谋私利,恬静无邪;
挥去邪恶,带来真诚;
让世界充满了力量、信任、希望和忍耐。
爱永不衰退:
若听信了预言,
以为知晓万事,
爱就会消失。
 
我们因愚昧而一知半解。
 
完美无缺驱赶了愚昧。
 
幼童则如幼童,
成人则贽抛弃了一切幼稚无知。
 
一叶障目;
面对面则知我所知。
从现在起,
守信用,去憧憬,去爱;
爱是最伟大的。
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